Protein Electrophoresis

CPT Code(s):

84156, 84166

Methodology:

Electrophoresis on agarose media

Performed:

Monday - Friday

Reported:

-

Use:

This test is primarily used to detect monoclonal gammopathies, which are commonly found in association with hemic neoplasms, especially multiple myeloma, as well as other benign and malignant conditions. Any such protein detected should be identified by an alternative technique, like immunofixation or immunoelectrophoresis.
Other applications of this test include the evaluation of:

  • Albumin
  • α1-globulin
  • α2-globulin
  • β-globulin
  • γ-globulin
  • Total protein
  • Globulin
  • A:G ratio

Specimen Requirements:

Type: Serum

Container/Tube: Red-top tube or gel-barrier tube

Sample Volume: 2mL

Minimum Volume: 1 mL

Storage: Refrigerate specimens at 2° - 8°C.

Causes for Rejection:

  • Hemolysis
  • Plasma instead of serum

Collection Procedure:

-

Reference Values:

  • Albumin: 3.2 - 5.6 g/dL
  • α1-globulin: 0.1 - 0.4 g/dL
  • α2-globulin: 0.4 - 1.2 g/dL
  • β-globulin: 0.6 - 1.3 g/dL
  • γ-globulin: 0.5 - 1.6 g/dL
  • Total protein: 6.0 - 8.5 g/dL
  • Globulin: 2.0 - 4.5 g/dL
  • A:G ratio: 0.7 - 2.0
Electrophoretic Zones
Pattern
Description
Total Protein (g/dL) Albumin (g/dL) α1
(g/dL)
α2
(g/dL)
β
(g/dL)
γ
(g/dL)
Normal N N N N N N
Hemolysis α2/β bridging
Protein-losing
syndromes
- - N+ N+ N- -N+
Nephrotic
syndrome
- - N +++ N N-
Hypogammaglobulinemia N- N N N N -
Agammaglobulinemia N- N N N N Absent
Diffuse
hepatocellular degeneration
N- - - - - N+
Polyclonal
gammopathy
N+ N- N N N +
Chronic
inflammatory response
N+ N- N+ + N +
Acute
inflammatory response
N N- + + N N-
Subacute
inflammatory response
N N- N = N N
Hepatic cirrhosis -N+ - N N- β/γ bridging
Hypo-α1-globulinemia N N - N N N
Monoclonal gammopathy (γ) N+ N- N N N (M-spike)
Monoclonal gammopathy (β) N+ N- N N (M-spike) N-
Biclonal gammopathy
(γ, β or both)
N+ N- N N (M-spike) (M-spike)
Oligoclonal bands N N- N+ N+ N Oligo banding
Bisalbuminemia Split peak
Hypoalbuminemia N- - N N N N

Legend

  • Normal: N
  • Elevated: +
  • Decreased: -|
  • Normal-to-elevated: N+
  • Normal-to-decreased: N-
  • Decreased-to-normal-to-elevated: –N+

Interpretation Data:

-

Notes:

UFHPL Test #: 28130

UFHPL Epic order code: LAB366

Absolute values (g/dL) should be used for interpretation instead of relative percentages (%).

Reported Notes:

This test Includes a graph with relative percentages and quantitation of

  • Albumin, α1, α2, β, and γ globulins fractions
  • Total protein
  • M-spike (if present)

Result:

-