Protein Electrophoresis

Methodology: 
Electrophoresis on agarose media
Performed: 
Monday - Friday
Reported Notes: 
This test Includes a graph with relative percentages and quantitation of
  • Albumin, α1, α2, β, and γ globulins fractions
  • Total protein
  • M-spike (if present)
Use: 
This test is primarily used to detect monoclonal gammopathies, which are commonly found in association with hemic neoplasms, especially multiple myeloma, as well as other benign and malignant conditions. Any such protein detected should be identified by an alternative technique, like immunofixation or immunoelectrophoresis.
 
Other applications of this test include the evaluation of:
  • Albumin
  • α1-globulin
  • α2-globulin
  • β-globulin
  • γ-globulin
  • Total protein
  • Globulin
  • A:G ratio
Specimen Requirements: 
Type: Serum
 

Container/Tube: Red-top tube or gel-barrier tube

Sample Volume: 2mL

Minimum Volume: 1 mL

Storage: Refrigerate specimens at 2° - 8°C.

Causes for Rejection:
  • Hemolysis
  • Plasma instead of serum
Reference Values: 
  • Albumin: 3.2 - 5.6 g/dL
     
  • α1-globulin: 0.1 - 0.4 g/dL
     
  • α2-globulin: 0.4 - 1.2 g/dL
     
  • β-globulin: 0.6 - 1.3 g/dL
     
  • γ-globulin: 0.5 - 1.6 g/dL
     
  • Total protein: 6.0 - 8.5 g/dL
     
  • Globulin: 2.0 - 4.5 g/dL
     
  • A:G ratio: 0.7 - 2.0
Pattern
Description
Electrophoretic Zones

Total Protein (g/dL)
 
Albumin (g/dL) α1
(g/dL)
α2
(g/dL)
β
(g/dL)
γ
(g/dL)

Normal
 
N N N N N N

Hemolysis
 
      α2/β bridging    

Protein-losing
syndromes

 
- - N+ N+ N- -N+

Nephrotic
syndrome

 
- - N +++ N N-

Hypogammaglobulinemia
 
N- N N N N -

Agammaglobulinemia
 
N- N N N N Absent

Diffuse
hepatocellular degeneration

 
N- - - - - N+

Polyclonal
gammopathy

 
N+ N- N N N +

Chronic
inflammatory response

 
N+ N- N+ + N +

Acute
inflammatory response

 
N N- + + N N-

Subacute
inflammatory response

 
N N- N = N N

Hepatic cirrhosis
 
-N+ - N N- β/γ bridging

Hypo-α1-globulinemia
 
N N - N N N

Monoclonal gammopathy (γ)
 
N+ N- N N N (M-spike)

Monoclonal gammopathy (β)
 
N+ N- N N (M-spike) N-

Biclonal gammopathy
(γ, β or both)

 
N+ N- N N (M-spike) (M-spike)

Oligoclonal bands
 
N N- N+ N+ N Oligo banding

Bisalbuminemia
 
  Split peak        

Hypoalbuminemia
 
N- - N N N N

 

Legend

  • Normal: N
     
  • Elevated: +
     
  • Decreased: -|
     
  • Normal-to-elevated: N+
     
  • Normal-to-decreased: N-
     
  • Decreased-to-normal-to-elevated: –N+
CPT Code (s): 
84156, 84166
Notes: 

UFHPL Test #: 28130

UFHPL Epic order code: LAB366

Absolute values (g/dL) should be used for interpretation instead of relative percentages (%).
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